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Anthromes   The Global Ecological Patterns Created by Humans

Anthromes version 2

Anthromes 2 builds on the anthromes concept introduced in Anthromes 1 to investigate long-term anthropogenic changes in the the terrestrial biosphere.  Anthromes versions explained <here>.


How have humans transformed the biosphere?


Ellis et al. (2010): Anthropogenic Transformation of the Biomes: 1700 to 2000
Anthromes 2 maps Major Results
  • Biosphere less than half Wild in 1700, but only 5% Used.
  • Transition to mostly anthropogenic between 1900 & 2000.
  • Biosphere in 2000: 40% Used, 37% Novel, 23% Wild.
    • Novel ecosystems embedded within used lands now almost twice as common as wildlands.
    • Wildlands remain primarily in Earth's coldest and driest regions.

Spatial Data

Anthromes (1700-2000), ancient novel ecosystems, and terrestrial biomes

Maps & Google Earth
Anthromes (1700-2000)
, ancient novel ecosystems, and terrestrial biomes
Google Earth



Ellis, E. C., K. Klein Goldewijk, S. Siebert, D. Lightman, and N. Ramankutty. 2010. Anthropogenic transformation of the biomes, 1700 to 2000. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19(5):589�606. [download] [Online Appendices] [blog post: The Biosphere we created: 1700 to 2000]


A project of the Anthromes Working Group